Methods For Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater is a commonly generated by most industrial processes, the water more often containing toxic substances. Factories producing pharmaceutical products, pesticides, paints, dyes, petrochemicals, or detergents, generate wastewater contaminated with particulates or dissolved by-products. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, selenium and nitrogen compounds in significant levels are usually found in wastewater from fossil-fuel power stations. Visit daf wastewater treatment for more info.
Wastewaters from agricultural and food processing operations may have non-toxic and biodegradable content, but such wastewaters usually have high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids. Antibiotics, growth hormones and parasite control agents from animals may also be present at high concentrations in wastewater generated by slaughter houses. Significant amounts of fats, oil or grease (FOG); salt, acids, alkali, compounds used for flavoring; food preservatives and other plant organic material, are form part of wastewater from food processing facilities.
Gasification products like benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, ammonia, phenols, cresols and polycyclic aromatic carbons contaminate water used as coolant or lubricant in iron and steel industrial plants. Mine tailings from copper, gold or silver mines contain high concentrations of toxic substances. Pulp and paper mills produce wastewater that have chloroform, dioxins, furans, phenols and high quantities of suspended solids. Water used during processing of fleece also contains insecticide residues as well as animal fats. Wastewater in the operation of nuclear plants and radio-chemical laboratories are radio-active. Water treatment plants also produce certain by-products that require further treatment.
Wastewater left untreated is considered a pollutant. Laws enacted for environmental protection require the treatment of wastewater before being released into the environment (as effluent) or recycling back for use in the industrial process. Various treatment processes are employed, with several methods able to isolate and accumulate compounds or elements that are re-injected into the industrial process involved, sold for use elsewhere, or rendered inert and disposed off in accordance with relevant regulations.
A common and usually basic stage in industrial wastewater treatment is removal or recovery of suspended solids found in the water. Course-sized solids may easily be segregated as sludge or slurry that can be subjected to further treatment, depending on the chemicals such slurry may contain. Filtration and flocculation techniques may be required for very fine solids (and those with densities approximating that of water). FOG found as large oil droplets on the water surface may be taken out with skimmers. Oils dissolved in water may have to be removed using more complex systems such as API (American Petroleum Institute) oil-water separators, parallel plate separators, or hydrocyclone oil separators. Learn more here: http://www.ehow.com/about_5591764_wastewater-management_.html.
Conventional sewage treatment using activated sludge or trickling filter systems are employed for treating biodegradable organic compounds. Other treatment regimes, particularly for synthetic organic materials found in wastewater include advanced oxidation processing, distillation, adsorption, vitrification, incineration, chemical immobilization and landfill disposal. Untreated wastewater may leak into the ground, resulting to the soil having to be decontaminated thru soil remediation techniques as well.